Brief history of the Inca Empire
Grown of incas in Perú match to century XIV, same as Aztecas in Mexico. Is guessed taht incas come from borders of Lago Titicaca in actual Bolivia, and in a unknown date they founded the main city of empire Cuzco (navel of the world in quechua tongue). The expansion of incas was explosive, when spanish come to Perú (first third century XVI) incas dominated entirely Perú, Ecuador and Bolivia, and part of Colombia, Bolivia and Chile, about 350.000 square miles of territory.
Inca society was one of the first totalitarian states in history, the empire called Tahuantinsuyo (the four regions of the world) regulated every aspect of the life of his sudbits, even the most personal and intimates. They had a very restricted, almost null, personal freedom, even they had forbidden to close the doors in his own houses, to facilitate the raids of imperial bourocreats.
In the top of social piramid aws the Sapa-Inca, God, son and descendent of Gods, allpowerfull, he lived isolated of people and even of nobility, in midlle of a rampant luxury and the terrified idolatry from his sudbits.
The higher level of nobility was the "long ears", called so due heavy metalic pendants which legth his ears, they was the highest burocreats, militian and religious chiefs which ruled the empire.
The Yanaconas was the hereditary servants, almost slaves of Sapa-Inca and nobility.
The selected woman by her beauty, called acllacuna (sun virgins), was destined to religious service, nobility wives and Sapa-Inca concubines.
The common sudbits of the empire, called "hatunruna" or "puric", farmers, troop warrirs and small burocreats, disposed a very restricted, almost null, personal freedom. They can´t change home nor work, he must marry at 20, on contrary the state assigned him a wive, it not was any single by free will on the empire.
One of the most notorious assets of inca empire was the agricultural economy so minusciously planned. It must be the gratest achievement on history of plannified economy, due the sucess on expansion and prosperity reached.
Incas was experienced and courageous warriors, due that they build the giant empire described above, they yield over 500 tribes, except for some few selvatic tribes and chilean araucanos, the others can´t stop the incaic conquest. Yield territories was considered as one province, with the laws and religion inca imposed at force. If a territory resisted that they was deported massively to live in other colonies more peacefull which was called Mitimaes.
The main city of the empire was El Cuzco, but the whole empire was divided into four "suyos" (regions) each one directed by a very powerfull viceroy, that´s why the name of empire was "Tahuantinsuyo" four regions of the world. The government of so vast empire was feasible due a network of roads LOS CAMINOS DEL INCA, stone pavimented at hand, which comunicated the empire in all directions. The north-south roads was double, one for the coast and the other trough the Cordillera de Los Andes. In the desert, was only marked by pieces of wood, in altiplano was stairways carved in the rocks, in swmps go over bridges so as river and cliffs. Every certain distances they had public lodges with provisions called "tambos"
The postman was called "chasquis" and run at feet far distances at a considerable speed, they carry news by mean of "quipus" (ropes with nodes which was the writing method of incas) and also carried some ligth weigth.
The inca empire as we can see now
Our zone is full of vestiges of inca and pre inca era, one can see huge drawings in hills (petroglifos) wich it guess tht was a sort of "taffic signals" of this era, a good part of the roads of inca (secially in the altiplano) is still good and can be tracked by impressing landscapes, the ancient cities as San Pedro de Atacama and the small towns in chilean altiplane are almost identical at era of spanish conque, same as the city of Arequipa in Perú. The cities of Cuzco and Machu Picchu are so beautifully conserved that carry us five hundred years ago. Quechua and aimara people abound in our cities and, at difference of other places, are not degradated races, they are abundant and prosperous enough. In Bolivia you can travel many hundred of years ago in the ruins of Thiahuanaku, one of the most antiques, misterious and gratest civilization of America.